Meat based diet

Peer-Reviewed Scientific Articles‚Äč

Behavioral Characteristics and Self-reported Health Status Among 2029 Adults Consuming a ‚ÄúCarnivore Diet‚ÄĚ

URL: https://academic.oup.com/cdn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cdn/nzab133/6415894

Journal: Clinical Developments in Nutrition

Publication Date: 11/2021

Summary:¬†The ‚Äúcarnivore diet,‚ÄĚ based on animal foods and excluding most or all plant foods, has attracted recent popular attention. However, little is known about the health effects and tolerability of this diet, and concerns for nutrient deficiencies and cardiovascular disease risk have been raised.¬†We obtained descriptive data on the nutritional practices and health status of a large group of carnivore diet consumers.¬†A social media survey was conducted March 30 to June 24, 2020 among adults self- identifying as consuming a carnivore diet¬†‚Č•¬†6 months. Survey questions interrogated motivation, dietary intake patterns, symptoms suggestive of nutritional deficiencies or other adverse effects, satisfaction, prior and current health conditions, anthropometrics, and laboratory data. ¬†A total of 2029 respondents (median age 44 years, 67% male), reported consuming a carnivore diet for 14 (interquartile range 9‚Äď20) months, motivated primarily by health reasons (93%). Red meat consumption was reported¬†‚Č•¬†daily by 85%. Under 10% reported consuming vegetables, fruits or grains¬†>¬†monthly, and 37% denied vitamin supplement use. Prevalence of adverse symptoms was low (<1% to 5.5%). Symptoms included gastrointestinal (3.1‚Äď5.5%), muscular (4.0%), and dermatologic (1.1‚Äď1.9%). Participants reported high levels of satisfaction and improvements in overall health (95%), wellbeing (69‚Äď91%), various medical conditions (48‚Äď93%) and BMI (from 27.2 [23.5‚Äď31.9] to 24.3 [22.1‚Äď27.0] kg/m2). Among a subset reporting current lipids, LDL-cholesterol was markedly elevated (172¬†mg/dL), whereas HDL-cholesterol (68 gm/dL) and triglycerides (68¬†mg/dL) were optimal. Participants with diabetes reported benefits including reductions in BMI (4.3¬†kg/m2, 1.4‚Äď7.2), HbA1C (0.4%, 0‚Äď1.7), and diabetes medication use (84‚Äď100%).¬†Contrary to common expectations, adults consuming a carnivore diet experienced few adverse effects and instead reported health benefits and high satisfaction. Cardiovascular risk factors were variably affected. The generalizability of these findings and the long-term effects of this dietary pattern require further study.¬†In a survey of over 2000 adults following a ‚Äúcarnivore diet‚ÄĚ (i.e., one that aims to avoid plant foods), health benefits and satisfaction were generally reported.

Dietary Intake of Red Meat, Processed Meat, and Poultry and Risk of Colorectal Cancer and All-Cause Mortality in the Context of Dietary Guideline Compliance

URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/13/1/32

Journal: Nutrients

Publication Date: 12/2020

Summary:¬†Meat intake has been linked to increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and mortality. However, diet composition may affect the risks. We aimed to estimate associations between red and processed meat and poultry intake and risk of CRC and all-cause mortality and if they are modified by dietary quality using Cox regression analyses. Baseline dietary data were obtained from three survey rounds of the Danish National Survey on Diet and Physical Activity. Data on CRC and all-cause mortality were extracted from national registers. The cohort was followed from date of survey interview‚ÄĒor for CRC, from age 50 years, whichever came last, until 31 December 2017. Meat intake was analysed categorically and continuously, and stratified by dietary quality for 15‚Äď75-year-old Danes at baseline, n 6282 for CRC and n 9848 for mortality analyses. We found no significant association between red and processed meat intake and CRC risk. For poultry, increased CRC risk for high versus low intake (HR 1.62; 95%CI 1.13‚Äď2.31) was found, but not when examining risk change per 100 g increased intake. We showed no association between meat intake and all-cause mortality. The association between meat intake and CRC or mortality risk was not modified by dietary quality.

Crohn’s disease successfully treated with the paleolithic ketogenic diet

URL:¬†https://www.researchgate.net/publication/306373055_Crohn’s_disease_successfully_treated_with_the_paleolithic_ketogenic_diet

International Journal of Case Reports and Images
 
Publication Date: 09/2016
 
Summary:
Here we report a severe case of Crohn’s disease where we successfully applied the paleolithic ketogenic diet. Dietary therapy resulted in resolution of symptoms, normalized laboratory parameters as well as gradual normalization of bowel inflammation as evidenced by imaging data and normalization of intestinal permeability as shown by the polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) challenge test. The patient was able to discontinue medication within two weeks. Currently, he is on the diet for 15 months and is free of symptoms as well as side effects.

A child with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) successfully treated with the Paleolithic ketogenic diet: A 19-month insulin freedom

URL: http://www.ijcasereportsandimages.com/archive/2015/012-2015-ijcri/CR-10582-12-2015-toth/ijcri-1058212201582-toth-full-text.php

International Journal of Case Reports and Images

Publication Date: 12/2015

Summary: A nine-year-old child with T1DM who initially was on an insulin regime with high carbohydrate diet then was put on the Paleolithic ketogenic diet. Following dietary shift glucose levels normalized and he was able to discontinue insulin. No hypoglycemic episodes occurred on the diet and several other benefits were achieved including improved physical fitness, reduction of upper respiratory tract infections and eczema. Currently, he is on the diet for 19 months.

 

Halted Progression of Soft Palate Cancer in a Patient Treated with the Paleolithic Ketogenic Diet Alone: A 20-months Follow-up

URL: http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajmcr/4/8/8/

American Journal of Medical Case Reports

Publication Date: 08/2016

Summary: Here we present a case with myoepithelial tumor of the soft palate where the patient denied conventional treatment options. Instead, the patient started the paleolithic ketogenic diet which resulted in a halted progression of the tumor as evidenced by imaging follow-up. Currently, the patient is on the diet for 20 months, without symptoms and side effects.

The ‚Äėcarnivore connection‚Äô ‚ÄĒ evolutionary aspects of insulin resistance

URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/1601351

Journal: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

 Publication Date: 03/2002

¬†Summary:¬†Insulin resistance is common and is determined by physiological (aging, physical fitness), pathological (obesity) and genetic factors. The metabolic compensatory response to insulin resistance is hyperinsulinaemia, the primary purpose of which is to maintain normal glucose tolerance. The ‚Äėcarnivore connection‚Äô postulates a critical role for the quantity of dietary protein and carbohydrate and the change in the glycaemic index of dietary carbohydrate in the evolution of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia. Insulin resistance offered survival and reproductive advantages during the Ice Ages which dominated human evolution, during which a high-protein low-carbohydrate diet was consumed. Following the end of the last Ice Age and the advent of agriculture, dietary carbohydrate increased. Although this resulted in a sharp increase in the quantity of carbohydrate consumed, these traditional carbohydrate foods had a low glycaemic index and produced only modest increases in plasma insulin. The industrial revolution changed the quality of dietary carbohydrate. The milling of cereals made starch more digestible and postprandial glycaemic and insulin responses increased 2‚Äď3 fold compared with coarsely ground flour or whole grains. This combination of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia is a common feature of many modern day diseases. Over the last 50 y the explosion of convenience and takeaway ‚Äėfast foods‚Äô has exposed most populations to caloric intakes far in excess of daily energy requirements and the resulting obesity has been a major factor in increasing the prevalence of insulin resistance.

The carnivore connection: dietary carbohydrate in the evolution of NIDDM.

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7895958

Journal: Diabetologia.

 Publication Date: 12/1994

 Summary: We postulate a critical role for the quantity and quality of dietary carbohydrate in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Our primate ancestors ate a high-carbohydrate diet and the brain and reproductive tissues evolved a specific requirement for glucose as a source of fuel. But the Ice Ages which dominated the last two million years of human evolution brought a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet. Certain metabolic adaptations were therefore necessary to accommodate the low glucose intake. Studies in both humans and experimental animals indicate that the adaptive (phenotypic) response to low-carbohydrate intake is insulin resistance. This provides the clue that insulin resistance is the mechanism for coping with a shortage of dietary glucose. We propose that the low-carbohydrate carnivorous diet would have disadvantaged reproduction in insulin-sensitive individuals and positively selected for individuals with insulin resistance. Natural selection would therefore result in a high proportion of people with genetically-determined insulin resistance. Other factors, such as geographic isolation, have contributed to further increases in the prevalence of the genotype in some population groups. Europeans may have a low incidence of diabetes because they were among the first to adopt agriculture and their diet has been high in carbohydrate for 10,000 years. The selection pressure for insulin resistance (i.e., a low-carbohydrate diet) was therefore relaxed much sooner in Caucasians than in other populations. Hence the prevalence of genes producing insulin resistance should be lower in the European population and any other group exposed to high-carbohydrate intake for a sufficiently long period of time.

The Effect of an Exclusive Meat Diet Lasting One Year on the Carbohydrate Tolerance of Two Normal Men

URL: http://www.jbc.org/content/83/3/747.full.pdf

Journal of Biological Chemistry

Publication Date: 06/1929

Summary: This publication reviews the effects on the carbohydrate tolerance of two men after consuming a diet of only meat for 1 year.  Dr. Vilhjalmur Stefansson spent over 11 years in arctic exploration, during 9 years of which he lived almost exclusively on meat. Stimulated by this experience, Stefansson and Andersen, the latter a member of one of the expeditions, voluntarily agreed to eat nothing but meat for 1 year while they continued their usual activities in the temperate climate of New York.

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